Sometimes iron triangles face challenges for control of the bureaucracy from issue networks. These consist of political executives, career bureaucrats, management and policy consultants, academic researchers, journalists, foundation officers, and White House aides, all of whom want fundamental change in the way a bureau operates its programs. They think about the issues in a broader context than do members of iron triangles,...
Competition among issue networks, and between them and iron triangles, is good for the White House and good for the country. ...
It serves as an antidote for entrenched bureaucratic interests and political privilege. It enables outside policy entrepreneurs to gain access and compete with the iron triangles.